1997 GWS Conference Proceedings

Making Protection Work is the proceedings volume from the 1997 GWS Biennial Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites. The book (493 pp.) is available as a paperback ($18) postpaid to US & Canadian addresses (additional shipping elsewhere). GWS members get a 25% discount off these prices. Order on-line



Harmon, David, ed. 1997. Making Protection Work: Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands. Hancock, Michigan: George Wright Society.



Part I: Human Use and Cultural Resources

1. Conflicts and Crowding

  • Making Protection Work: The Banff Experience / Wendy Francis
  • Compatible Resource Uses and Emerging Use Conflicts in National Marine Sanctuaries / Elizabeth Moore, June Cradick & Michael Weiss
  • Conflicts on Multiple-Use Trails: Causes and Management Responses / Roger L. Moore
  • Recreation Displacement on the Kepler Track, Fiordland National Park, New Zealand: A Longitudinal Study / John Shultis
  • Truths About Solitude at Grand Canyon / William P. Stewart & David N. Cole
  • Carrying Capacity at Petra, Jordan: A Cultural World Heritage Site / Gustavo Araoz, Douglas Comer & Lawrence Belli
  • Visitors, Conditions, and Management Options for High-Use Destination Areas in Wilderness / David N. Cole
  • Sustaining Conservation and Amenity Values in Areas of Outstanding Environmental Quality: A Model Based Upon the United States National Park Experience / Bob Prosser

2. Motorized Use

  • Auto Tourism, Wilderness, and the Development of Great Smoky Mountains National Park / Neil Maher
  • A Vicious Circle: Automobiles and the National Parks / Richard Quin
  • Aircraft Overflights and the U.S. National Park System: An Overview /Richard L. Ernenwein

3. Below the Dam: Partnerships in Cultural Resources Management on the Colorado River

  • The Realities of Management: A Federal Responsibility and More / Janet R. Balsom & Signa Larralde
  • Cultural Resources Protection at Ku'nin A'l'akkwe'a (Grand Canyon): A Zuni Perspective / Joseph Dishta
  • Monitoring the Health of Cultural Resources: A Case Study from Grand Canyon National Park / Christian E. Downum, Nancy B. Andrews & Jennifer L. Kunde
  • The Hopi People, the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, and Management of Cultural Resources in the Grand Canyon / T. J. Ferguson, Leigh J. Kuwanwisiwma, Michael Yeatts & Kurt E. Dongoske
  • Photographic Replication Methods Used to Assist in the Management of Cultural Resources Along the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon National Park / Duane C. Hubbard
  • Site Preservation Methods: A Working Example / Lisa M. Leap
  • Southern Paiute Research on Cultural Resources in the Colorado River Corridor / Cynthia D. Osife, Angelita Bulletts & Diane E. Austin

4. Perceptions of Protected Areas

  • Sense of Place: Mount Desert Island Residents and Acadia National Park / Nicole L. Ballinger & Robert E. Manning
  • Offering Citizens and Visitors a Regional Landscape Aesthetic: Preventing the Final Loss of a Region's Natural Resources and Scenic Character / Dennis C. Colliton & Joshua F. Walter
  • Valuing Forest Quality Changes in New York's Allegany State Park / James F. Booker
  • Making Sense Out of Nonsense: Exploring the Basis for Disarming Federal Rangers / Michael R. Pendleton

5. Case Studies in Cultural Resources Management

  • Cultural Resource Vandalism at Glen Canyon National Recreation Area: A Case Study of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act / Tim W. Burchett
  • What Do Fossilized Worms Have to Do with a Highway? / Terry L. Clements
  • Building an Erosion Monitoring Approach for Cultural Resources: An Example from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River
  • / Paul R. Nickens, Natalie A. Cadoret & Mona K. Wright
  • Preservation in a Rapidly Changing World: Montezuma Castle National Monument / Josh Protas
  • Emergency Wildlife Damage Assessments for Cultural Resource Site Treatements /Charisse Sydoriak, Earl Ruby & Elizabeth Mozzillo


Part II: Ecology

6. Case Studies in Wildlife Research and Management

  • Bat-Compatible Closures of Abandoned Underground Mines in National Park System Units / John E. Burghardt
  • Elk Management and Research in Rocky Mountain National Park: An Adaptive Approach / Therese L. Johnson & Francis J. Singer
  • Results of Roadkill Surveys at Saguaro National Park / Natasha C. Kline & Don E. Swann .
  • Burros in National Park Service Units: Legal Issues, History, and Present Status /Gordon Reetz
  • Breeding Bird Population Trends at Apostle Islands National Lakeshore / Julie Van Stappen & Theodore Gostomski
  • Home Ranges and Survival of Gray Wolves in and Adjacent to Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota / Peter J. P. Gogan, Jean Fitts Cochrane & Edward M. Olexa
  • Wolves in Waterton: A Case History in Problem Definition and Adaptive Ecosystem Management / Kevin Van Tighem & Elliot Fox
  • Wolf Recovery in Michigan's Upper Peninsula / Brian Kenner

7. Vegetation

  • Exotic Plant Species of the Colorado Plateau: A Profile of the Status and Threat of Some Invasive Aliens in the Southwest / Julie A. C. Zimmerman, Karen Wright & Kathryn Thomas
  • Resource Impacts From Gypsy Moths at Shenandoah National Park, Virginia / James Åkerson
  • Preliminary Density Estimates and Mortality Schedules of Lee's Pincushion Cactus, Coryphantha sneedii var. leei, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico / Diane Dobos Bubno, Mark Bremer & Bill Route
  • Will Increased Fire Cause a Shift in Species Composition of the Arizona Upland Subdivision in the Sonoran Desert? Development of a GIS System to Analyze the Fire History of Southern Arizona / Pamela J. Swantek, William H. Halvorson & Cecil R. Schwalbe
  • Alien Threats and Restoration Dilemmas in Whitebark and Limber Pine Communities / Katherine C. Kendall & David Schirokauer

8. Environmental Quality

  • Lapland Biosphere Reserve: An Environmental Summary / Valery Barcan
  • Air Pollution: Identifying the Resources at Risk / Tonnie Maniero
  • Influence of Local PM10 Emissions on Ambient Air Quality in Yosemite Valley, California /William B. Mills, Mary F. Porcella & John Y. Loh .
  • Big Bend National Park Watershed Program: Monitoring Microbial Activity and Diversity Along an Elevational Gradient / John C. Zak, Lori L. Ziehr, Kevin Urbanczyk, J. B. McHam & Keith Yarborough

9. Restoration

  • Experimental Methods for Restoring Boreal Toad Populations in Rocky Mountain National Park / Therese L. Johnson, Erin Muths & P. Stephen Corn
  • Bighorn Sheep Restoration: Modeling Habitat Suitability within GIS / Michelle Gudorf, Patricia Sweanor & Francis J. Singer
  • Aspen: A New Perspective-Implications for Park Management and Ecosystem Integrity / Charles E. Kay
  • Making Restoration Work: The Ethics of Restoration Ecology, or, Why Postmodernists are Not the Enemy / Alan G. McQuillan


Part III: The Bigger Picture

10. Landscapes and Large-Scale Management

  • Close Cousins Consider Landscapes: Comparative Notes on Cultural Landscape Work in Australia and the United States / Jillian Cowley
  • Protecting Landscapes: Contributions from Landscape Preservation to Management of Parks and Reserves / Nora J. Mitchell
  • Are Marine Protected Areas Really Protecting Caribbean Reefs? / Rikki Grober-Dunsmore
  • The Northwest Forest Plan: A Framework for Interagency Cooperation and Large-Scale Ecosystem Management / James F. Milestone
  • Biocultural Areas and Sustainable Preservation Efforts: A Perspective on the Chesapeake Bay Program / Robert D. Campbell

11. Interagency Cooperation and External Partnerships

  • The Shawangunk Ridge Biodiversity Partnership: An Organizational Model for Resource Protection, Cooperative Research, and Ecosystem Management / Michael S. Batcher & Thomas L. Cobb
  • Comparison of Paleontological Resource Management in the Rocky Mountain Region by the National Park Service and the U.S. Forest Service / Anthony R. Fiorillo, Cathleen L. May & Richard Harris
  • Keeping Out, Reaching Out, But Who Are You Leaving Out? Protecting Endangered Species at the Presidio of San Francisco, California / Sharon D. Ferrell & Pete Holloran
  • Developing an Indigenous Park: Planning and Managing for Economic and Cultural Development in a Canadian First Nations Community / John Shultis
  • First Nations and Protected Areas: A British Columbian Alliance / Kris Kennett

12. Neighbors

  • Successful Parks and Gateway Communities / Warren Lee Brown & Luther Propst
  • Protecting Resources at Redwood National and State Parks through Cooperation and Understanding / Terry Hofstra, Greg Bundros & Barry Hill
  • National Parks and the Politics of Adjacent Lands: A Survey of Superintendents /Steve Ryder
  • Parks on the Edge: Are They Urban or Wild? Mount Jumbo's Elk or Winter Hikers? MaryMinor Smith
  • Some Observations on Transborder Protected Area Cooperation / Lawrence S. Hamilton

13. Population Growth and its Effects

  • National Park Service Attendance and U.S. Population Growth: A Brief History and Projections / Bill Conrod
  • The National Park Service Role in Management of Pronghorn Antelope Over a Fragmented Landscape in Northern Arizona / Charles Van Riper III, Richard Ockenfels, Jill Bright & Terence Arundel
  • A Framework for Managing Development in Waterton Lakes National Park: Towards a Model Park and Community / Steve Whittingham & Kevin Van Tighem

14. Global Change

  • Effects of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities on Oak Woodlands in Southeastern Arizona / K. M. Suedkamp & G. R. McPherson
  • The Potential Effects of Sea-Level Rise on the Salt Marshes of Cape Hatteras National Seashore and the Outer Banks, North Carolina / Christopher Lee Perle & Carlton Hershner


Part IV: Process

15. Inventory and Monitoring

  • Monitoring Gray Wolf and Snowmobile Activity on Frozen Lake Surfaces: Protected Area Management at Voyageurs National Park / James P. Schaberl, Samuel Lammie, H. Brian Underwood & Patrick Lynch
  • Arizona GAP Program: A Reality Check / Peter S. Bennett
  • Long-Term Fish Monitoring in the Everglades: Looking Beyond the Park Boundary /William F. Loftus, Oron L. Bass & Joel C. Trexler

16. Improving the Quality and Delivery of Information

  • Improving Resource Monitoring and Management through Statistical Power / Richard A. Evans
  • Data and Information Management, Channel Islands National Park / Linda C. Dye
  • National Biological Information Infrastructure Protocols, Partnerships, and Implementation Issues at the USGS-BRD Cooperative Parks Studies Unit, University of Arizona / Michael R. Kunzmann & William L. Halvorson
  • Methods for Assessing and Monitoring Backcountry Trail Conditions: An Empirical Comparison / Yu-Fai Leung, Jeffrey L. Marion & Janet Y. Ferguson
  • The Four-Corners Project: Assessing the Contribution of Protected Areas with Ecoregional Gap Analysis / Kathryn Thomas, Patrick Crist & Bruce C. Thompson
  • When Words Have Muscle and Wings: Interpreting Critical Resource Issues at Grand Canyon National Park / Greer K. Chesher
  • Interpretation: Pursuing a Traditional Mission with Non-Traditional Methods and Partners / Art Hutchinson & John D. Parmley
  • Interpretation and the Four Estates / James B. Thompson & James A. Mack

17. Improving Relations Between Research and Management

  • Programmatic Resource Management Planning: A Tool for Interdivisional Partnerships in Resource Preservation / William M. Brock
  • Linking Management and Science / Neil Munro
  • What Long-Term Research Offers National Park Service Managers: A Case Study from the Virgin Islands / Caroline S. Rogers
  • Environmental Tradeoffs in Management Decisions / Vicki Ozaki, Judy Wartella & Mary Ann Madej

18. New Approaches, New Paradigms

  • Developing a Business Approach to Protected Areas Management / Neil Munro
  • A Fundamental Limitation in Applying Business Quality Principles to Parks and Reserves / Maurice H. Schwartz
  • The Role of Recreation Fees in the Management of National Parks / Allen L. Lundgren, Hans M. Gregersen & David W. Lime
  • Landscape Management: Changing Concepts and Expectations /William L. Halvorson
  • Keweenaw National Historical Park-A Case Study in the Failure of the Traditional USNPS Planning Approach / William O. Fink
  • New Directions in Wilderness Management: Challenges for Stewardship in a Crowded, Changing World / Christopher V. Barns
  • Multi-Stakeholder Negotiation as a Resource Management Tool / Karen Malkin
  • Urban Models for Protection: Community Participation and Environmental Stewardship / Caru Bowns, Brian Collett & Mark Francis
  • Leveraging Our Conservation Efforts / Nicole Silk
  • Conservation with a Human Face: Re-Considering Stewardship / Rolf Diamant, David Donath & Nora J. Mitchell