1999 GWS Conference Proceedings

On the Frontiers of Conservation is the proceedings volume from the 1999 GWS Biennial Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites. The book is available as a paperback ($18) postpaid to US & Canadian addresses (additional shipping elsewhere). GWS members get a 25% discount off these prices. Order on-line


Harmon, David, ed. 1999. On the Frontiers of Conservation: Proceedings of the Tenth Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands. Hancock, Michigan: George Wright Society. 


Plenary Addresses

Aldo Leopold and Environmental Citizenship / Susan Flader

The American Civil Rights Movement: Preserving the Legacy / Robert R. Weyeneth


Interagency and Community Partnerships

Canada–U.S. Clean Air Partnerships for Protected Areas / David Welch and Erik Hauge

Sharing a World of Resources / Toni Dufficy

The Government Performance and Results Act Survey: Results from Selected Programs of the National Park Service / Michael A. Schuett, Steven J. Hollenhorst, and Steven A. Whisman

A Consensus Approach to Management Planning: An Evaluation of Effectiveness for Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, Canada / Graham Dodds and Greg Fenton

Achieving Diversity in Natural Resources / Danette Woo

The Banff–Bow Valley Study: Breaking the Public Policy Grid Lock / Douglas W. Hodgins and J. Douglas Cook


Planning for Visitor Impacts

The Development of a Cooperative Climbing Management Plan at Stone Mountain State Park, North Carolina / Marshall Ellis

Identification and Management of Visitor Impact Problems within Protected Areas in Costa Rica and Belize / Tracy A. Farrell and Jeffrey L. Marion

Understanding the Visitors' Experience at Fort Sumter National Monument / Rudy Schuster and William E. Hammitt

The NPS Visitor Survey Card: First-Year Survey and Implications for Park Management / Terry R. Bergerson

Acadia National Park Historic Hiking Trail System: Planning for Management and Maintenance / J. Tracy Stakely and Margie Coffin

Mountain Biking and Soil Erosion: User Preference of Factors of Erosion and Management Techniques / Mathew C. Symmonds, William E. Hammitt, and Virgil L. Quisenberry


Inventory and Monitoring Case Studies

Inventory and Monitoring Program Along the Appalachian Trail / Kent Schwarzkopf and Holly Buchanan

The Suitability of Bus Drivers for Monitoring Large Mammal Abundance / Sherman L. Burson III, Jerrold L. Belant, Karen A. Fortier, and Warren C. Tomkiewicz III

How Do We Discover What We Don't Know in the Smokies? / Karen P. Wade

Is Great Smoky Mountains National Park Acting as a Population Source for Wood Thrushes? / George L. Farnsworth and Theodore R. Simons

Nutrient Loads Traced to Interbasin Groundwater Transport at Buffalo National River, Arkansas / David N. Mott, Mark R. Hudson, and Tom Aley


Ecosystem Management

Missing Link In Ecosystem Management: The Role Of Geology / Stuart P. Hughes, James H. Popenoe, and Judy Geniac

Geological Science: Where Does it Fit in Ecosystem Management? / Vera Smith

Places of Discovery: Paleontology, Research, and Natural Areas / Ted Fremd

Integrating Human Dimensions with Ecosystem Management at Canadian National Parks in Ontario / William R. Stephenson and Julie M. Poirier

A Review of Science and Ecosystem Management in the U.S. National Parks / William L. Halvorson

The Importance of Inventory and Monitoring Data Sets in Resolving Ecosystem Management Problems at Mammoth Cave National Park / Rick Olson and Teresa Leibfreid


Marine and Coastal Environments

Counting Sand Grains in a Sandstorm: The Evolving Lessingia germanorum Monitoring Program in the Presidio, Golden Gate National Recreation Area / Marc E. Albert, Katherine A. Bode, and Pete Holloran

Optimal Use of Beaches and the Preservation of Endangered Species in the Greek Islands / Ioannis K. Kaltsas

Marine Protected Areas in the Gulf of Maine: Providing a Framework for an Ecosystem Approach to Management / Samuel D. Brody and Betsy Nicholson

Impacts of Vessel Groundings to the Natural Resources in Biscayne National Park, 1995-1997 / Karen Battle

I&M&M(anagement): Getting from Inventory and Monitoring to Management-Cabrillo National Monument's Evolving Intertidal Tale / Samantha Weber


Planning Across Boundaries

The Role of the National Park Service in the Northwest Forest Plan / James F. Milestone and Jim Shevock

National Parks and Gateway Communities: Three Case Studies / Warren Brown and Karen Steer

Completing Canyonlands: Establishing Boundaries That Make Sense / Mark R. Peterson

Transboundary Cooperation Between Internationally Adjoining Protected Areas / Dorothy C. Zbicz

Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Environmental Organizations' Perspectives on Maintaining Wild Bison in Yellowstone National Park / Jeanne-Marie Souvigney and Mark R. Peterson


Restoration of Species and Ecosystems

Restoring Fishing Bridge Campground: The Challenges of "Undevelopment" in America's Oldest National Park / Sue Consolo Murphy and Daniel P. Reinhart

Ecological Restoration of a Wilderness and Cultural Landscape, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico / Brian F. Jacobs

Ecological Restoration and Park Development as Interpretative and Public Education Tools in the Urban–Suburban Matrix: Furstenberg Nature Park, Ann Arbor, Michigan / Lee R. Skabelund and David Borneman

Restoring the Gray Wolf to Olympic National Park: Background Information and Current Status / Patti Happe

Ecological Restoration in Parks and Protected Areas: Facing up to Scientific Understanding and Social Demands / Leon F. Neuenschwander, Richard C. Taplin, Calvin A. Farris, Kobe C. Harkins, and Dennis M. Coyle

Plant Community Re-establishment in Former High-Elevation Campsites in Yosemite National Park / Sean Eagan and Peter Newman


Building an Inventory and Monitoring Program

The National Park Service I&M Program: Current Status and New Initiatives / Gary L. Williams

Monitoring Natural Resources in National Parks: Determining What and How to Monitor / Steven G. Fancy

Using Analytical Tools for Decision-Making and Program Planning in Natural Resources: Breaking the Fear Barrier / David L. Peterson and Daniel L. Schmoldt

Channel Islands National Park Inventory and Monitoring Program Data Management Web Site Demonstration and Teaching Model / Linda C. Dye

Metadata Implementation in the National Park Service Midwest Region / Scott Barnwell

Monitoring Change in Protected Areas: Problems of Scope, Scale, and Power / Russell J. Hall

Status of Butternut, Juglans cinerea, on Lands Administered by the National Park Service and a Proposal for a Servicewide Management Strategy / Dan Sealy


Cultural Landscapes

Reinterpreting the Cultural Landscape of Chalmette Battlefield: Landscape Management Strategies for Parks with Multiple Layers of History / Kevin Risk

Ethnographic Landscapes in Alaska: Preservation and Conservation Redefined / Tonia Woods Horton

Rethinking the Cultural Landscape: A Study of Thomas's Wharf on the Eastern Shore of Virginia / Bonny A. Lewandowski


Vegetation Dynamics: Disturbance and Invasive Species

Visitor Impact at Logan Pass, Glacier National Park: A Thirty-Year Vegetation Study / Ernest A. Hartley

Post-Hurricane Vegetation Dynamics in Old-Growth Forests of Congaree Swamp National Monument / Bruce P. Allen and Rebecca R. Sharitz

Climatic and Hydrologic Effects on the Establishment of Tamarix ramosissima in the Cold Desert of Northern Wyoming (Bighorn Lake) / Laura E. Hudson and Paul B. Alaback

The North Rim Complex: Integrating Wildland Fire Use and Resource Management at Grand Canyon National Park / Amy Horn-Wilson and Tonja Opperman

Post-Fire Erosion Control and Vegetation Recovery Monitoring at Point Reyes National Seashore / Leslie J. Allen, Sara Koenig, Barbara J. Moritsch, V. Kimberly Cooper, and Tom Nichols

Plant Community Mapping and Classification at Point Reyes National Seashore and Golden Gate National Recreation Area / Barbara J. Moritsch, Leslie J. Allen, Sarah Allen, and Todd Keeler-Wolf

Building a Program of Exotic Vegetation Management / James Åkerson


Development of Park Policy: Historical and Analytical Perspectives

On the 1967 Proposal for an Adirondack Mountains National Park / Thomas L. Cobb

An Overview and Annotated Bibliography of Resource Management Policy Recommendations for the U.S. National Park Service (1988-1997) / Charles C. Chester

Federal Protected Area Policy Deficiency and the Growth of The Nature Conservancy / David Ostergren and Steve Hollenhorst

The Wilderness Act and National Park Service Wilderness Policies / Richard L. Anderson


Overflight and Noise Issues

Management of Commercial Air Tourism Over National Parks / Wesley Henry, Rick Ernenwein, Howie Thompson, and Steve Oppermann

Balancing Operational and Environmental Requirements for Military Ranges and Airspace / Thomas H. Lillie

The Protection of the Soundscapes of the South Florida Parks / William B. Schmidt


Management and Design Challenges: Concepts, Techniques, and Models

Fundamental Principles of Sustainability for Parks and Public Lands / Neil J. Andrew

Trends in Stewardship Internationally / Brent Mitchell and Jessica L. Brown

Management of the First Full 3D Seismic Operation in a National Park Service Property: Lessons from Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana / Sandee Dingman

Adaptive Management on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon: Lessons and Challenges / Robert A. Winfree

Reserve Design for Grasslands: Considerations for Bird Populations / Douglas H. Johnson and Maiken Winter

Third-Party Compliance Monitoring of Special Park Uses Provides a Valuable Tool to Resource Managers / Sandee Dingman

A Hydrostratigraphic Model for the Perched Aquifer Systems Located at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument / Charles Neal Farmer


Managing and Evaluating Scientific Research in Protected Areas

A Science Review Process for National Parks / Neil Munro

Research Administration in Wilderness: Defining the "Minimum Requirement" Exception / Richard L. Anderson

Regulating National Park Service Research and Collecting: A Fifty-Year Search for a Legal, Flexible, and Standardized Approach / Jonathan Bayless

Integrating Science and Management in Canadian National Parks / David Welch and Neil Munro


Rethinking Park Boundaries: Working Across Lines on the Map

Venturing Beyond Our Boundaries: Rocky Mountain National Park's Involvement in Adjacent Land Use Issues / Lawrence H. Gamble

The Rhetoric of Land Health / Eric T. Freyfogle

Removing the Blinders: A Call for National Park Service Involvement in Regional Development Issues / Dennis Glick

Working Across Lines on the Map: Lessons from New York's Adirondack Park / Thomas Pasquarello

Influencing Land Use Decisions on Lands Adjacent to Your Park or Protected Area: A Planning Commissioner's Point of View / George N. Wallace


Mapping History

Resource Management and Monitoring Using Large-format Photography and GPS and GIS Technology / James Stein

The Historic American Buildings Survey and GPS / Jack E. Boucher

Applying GPS to Historic Preservation and Architectural Surveys / Deidre McCarthy and James Stein


Designing Protected Area Systems

Policies and Strategies for the Sustainable Management of Protected Areas in Vietnam / Le Van Lanh

United States National Park Service Assessment of Haiti National Parks in the Context of Ecotourism / Brooke Shearer, Marc Koenings, Gary Cummins, John Donahue, and Paul Monaghan

Expanding Protected Natural Areas in Times of Social Change: The Russian Zapovednik (Strict Nature Preserve) and National Park Systems from 1991 to 1998 / David Ostergren